1. Delta Works

图片:改编自  弗拉基米尔·席曼  (VBYIMIRŠiman)(CC BY 3.0)
Image: Adapted from Vladimír Šiman (CC BY 3.0).

The Netherlands | 18.5 mi (30 km) long | 1950–1997

In 1953, catastrophic flooding, resulting in over 8,000 deaths, made the Netherlands’ vulnerability to ocean storm surges tragically clear. The solution: a massive infrastructural project called the Delta Works.

This system of dams, dykes, levees, locks, and other components enables the modulation of tides flowing in and out of the country’s numerous estuaries. Not only have the works opened some 900 square miles (2,330 km2) of dry land, they have also secured freshwater sources against seawater inundation, and provided new bridge and highway routes to island communities.

2. Channel Tunnel

Image: Adapted from Jaguar MENA (CC BY 2.0).

England & France | 31 mi (50 km) long | 1988–1994

The so-called “Chunnel” is the longest undersea railway in the world, connecting Folkestone, England with Calais, France. Operated by Eurotunnel, the rail carries high-speed Eurostar passenger trains, road vehicle shuttles, and freight trains.

While casual day trippers enjoy an easy 35-minute train ride, the tunnel also has a rather daunting second use—since its opening in 1994, cyclists have occasionally been allowed to ride the 72-mile (100-km) round-trip route through the tunnel’s service passages.

3. Empire State Building

Image: Adapted from Pedro Lastra (Unsplash).

New York, New York | 1,454 ft (443 m) high | 1930–1931

While it may no longer be the tallest building in the world, the towering art deco structure at the intersection of 5th Avenue and West 34th Street still endures as one of the best-known icons of New York City.

Climbing into the Manhattan skyline within 13 months, the skyscraper made history as the tallest building in the world, and retained that title for the next 40 years. Now, however, it is less than half the height of the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, the tallest building existing today.

Regardless, the New York emblem of engineering remains a fixture in popular culture, and continues to attract some 4 million visitors per year.

4. CN Tower

Image: Adapted from John Salvino (Unsplash).

Toronto, Canada | 1,815 ft (553 m) high | 1973–1976

Built by the Canadian National Railway as a communications platform, the CN Tower held the record of “tallest free-standing structure” for some 30 years.

This peculiar superlative comes from the fact that the tower’s habitable space is concentrated inside the iconic bulb of the SkyPod—the structure otherwise contains no floors and hence is not technically a “building.”

Nevertheless, 2 million visitors swamp the CN Tower each year to enjoy its observation decks, restaurant, and trademark EdgeWalk (a $200, harnessed, hands-free stroll around the 5 ft. [1.5 m] wide ledge atop the SkyPod).

5. Golden Gate Bridge

Image: Adapted from Oliver Plattner (Unsplash).

San Francisco, California | 4,200 ft (1,280 m) long | 1933–1937

This famous icon may surprise some visitors with its clearly not gold but red-hued “international orange” protective paint—the bridge actually inherited its name from the Golden Gate straits.

Today the bridge is celebrated as an innovative feat of modern engineering. But in the 1930s its design was met with a host of opposing voices ranging from ferry companies to the War Department. Engineer Joseph Strauss’s original concept and Irving Morrow’s art deco design ultimately won out, producing one of the most recognizable public works in modern history.

By foot, by bicycle, and by car, commuters and visitors take over 112,000 trips across the bridge every day.

6. Panama Canal

Image: Adapted from Panama Canal Authority (Public Domain).

Panama | 48 mi (77 km) long | 1881–1914

The opportunity was captivating: obviate a 10,000 mile (16,000 km) one-way voyage around South America—and its hazardous Cape Horn—by excavating a handful of miles through the Isthmus of Panama.

Work on the Panama Canal began under the French; the United States assumed the lead role in 1904. Opening in 1914, the route turned a months-long journey into a mere 12-hour jaunt, transforming global commerce.

It also created a geopolitically priceless region of concern. The United States steadfastly maintained control of the area for decades, but handed all responsibility for the canal—and its annual traffic of 15,000 ships—to the Panama Canal Authority in 1999.

7. Itaipu Dam

Image: Adapted from Henri Bergius (CC BY-SA 2.0).

Paraguay & Brazil | 3 mi (5 km) long | 1975–1984

Operated jointly by Brazil and Paraguay, the Itaipu Dam is the largest hydroelectric complex in the world.

Straddling the Paraná River, the dam’s construction displaced thousands of families and inundated Guaíra Falls—previously one of the world’s largest falls by volume. Nevertheless, the Itaipu Dam’s generation capacity of 14 gigawatts—and its 2016 world record of 103,098,466 megawatt hours generated—remains an invaluable resource.

Explore all seven engineering feats in the map below

This post is a copy from Esri Story Map, for the purpose of demostration of the mapdoc card abilities. Please refer to the original post blow
Seven Wonders: Engineering Feats
The American Society of Civil Engineers presents seven modern engineering marvels, stretching from South America to Europe.